Why do you have age spots and how to get rid of them
At all times, smooth, radiant skin and even complexion without pigment spots were considered symbols of youth and beauty. However, what to do if pigment spots – these “signs of old age” overwhelm you now? What is hyperpigmentation, its types, how to prevent and treat this condition – in the material of Evgenia Ikonnikova.Skin color is determined by many factors: the number and distribution of pigments (melanin, carotenoids, hemoglobin), the thickness of the epidermis and its condition, the number and location of vessels (surface or deep), skin texture (the presence or absence of wrinkles).
The main skin pigment is melanin. Not only obtaining a beautiful tan, but also the emergence of such a widespread aesthetic deficiency, such as hyperpigmentation, depends on it and the cells synthesizing it.
The most common types of pigmentation are freckles, melasma, solar lentigo. The latter appears due to a long stay in the sun. Occurs predominantly in middle-aged people with light skin type, the number of spots from lentigo tends to increase with aging.
Causes of hyperpigmentation
The main causes of hyperpigmentation are traditionally considered genetic factors, exposure to UV radiation, the work of female sex hormones, thyroid pathology, inflammatory skin diseases, as well as some cosmetic procedures that result in injured skin (fractional photothermolysis, laser and photoepilation, chemical peels ).
Genetic predisposition is considered one of the main reasons for the development of hyperpigmentation. Data from epidemiological studies show that there are differences in the appearance and intensity of pigmentation in representatives of different races. Also influenced by a burdened family history.
Prevention and treatment
A standard plan for the correction of excessive pigmentation of the skin usually involves the removal of provoking factors and the active destruction of the pigment with the help of topical agents or cosmetic procedures.
Patients with an increased risk of hyperpigmentation (especially with a Fitzpatrick skin phototype of III and above) are advised not to expose the skin to ultraviolet radiation. You should also regularly use sunscreen with a minimum of SPF 25, regardless of weather conditions.
There are effective treatments for hyperpigmentation, aimed at blocking the production of pigment. For example, the selection of an external agent with such ingredients as niacinamide, arbutin / deoxyarbutin, licorice extract, soybean trypsin inhibitor, peptides, antioxidants, kojic acid, retinol, fruit acids.
In the absence of the effect of cosmetics, the dermatologist and cosmetologist will prescribe laser therapy. This allows you to effectively and painlessly destroy the pigment and the cells that synthesize it without damaging the surrounding tissue. The most popular of the lasers used are alexandrite, neodymium, carbon dioxide, picosecond.
IPL systems based on the use of high-intensity pulsed light are also used to correct hyperpigmentation. Today, there are all new research on the combination of different types of laser therapy among themselves and with other methods of treatment. Remember that laser pigmentation treatment should be carried out only after other methods have been ineffective. Lasers and light sources can cause complications, so they should only be used in the hands of an experienced doctor.