Lyme disease – causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
With the onset of summer sunny days, most citizens seek out of the urban stone-concrete jungle into the forest, into nature. But it is precisely at this time that the rest in the vast expanses of forest lays the main danger in this period – ticks. They, as we know, become carriers of dangerous infectious diseases. And this is not only tick-borne encephalitis. Often, in the spring-summer period, inattentive lovers of forest trips are lurking such an infectious disease as tick-borne borreliosis, or Lyme disease, which becomes the carrier of the ixodic tick. What is its danger, as well as about effective measures of prevention and treatment – in the material Passion.ru and Margarita Clinical Diagnostic Center MEDSI on the Belarusian.
Lyme disease, or tick-borne borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Borrelia. As a rule, pathogens of the disease are transmitted by ixodic ticks during suction. So Borrelia get into the skin, multiply within a few days, then spread to the internal organs. Yes, the tick is dangerous not only because of the risk of infection with encephalitis, the tick can be a carrier of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, which in humans cause diseases such as tick-borne encephalitis, ehrlichiosis, borreliosis and anaplamosis.
By the way, this name of the disease – Lyme disease – arose because of a city in the United States, where Borreliosis was diagnosed for the first time. The first reports of this appeared in 1975 in the United States, where on November 1 in the state of Connecticut, in the small town of Old Lyme, cases of this disease were recorded. Two women turned to the Department of Health, whose children were diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The same diagnosis was made by several adults. Research conducted at the Department of Rheumatology at the Center for Disease Control, a team of doctors led by Allen Stier, found that the disease occurs after a tick-sucking tick, with arthritis often combined with a migrating ring-shaped erythema.
In Russia, tick-borne borreliosis was first identified in 1985, thanks to the work of specialists from the NF Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.
How is infection and the development of infection
Infection occurs when a tick sucks during, for example, a walk in nature: in a park or in a forest, on any open areas of the human body. The reservoir (storage) of infection – birds, animals, rodents. And ticks of these pathogens – Borrelia – are kept in themselves almost constantly, if they are infected with them. Ixodes ticks – carriers of borrelia – are a constant source of danger of infection by this infection. From the moment of suction to the first symptoms of the disease can take up to 30 days.
Moreover, ixodid mites are extremely common. If tick-borne encephalitis is still more “tied” to certain regions, for example, Siberia, Karelia, the Leningrad region, where the forests are saturated with ticks infected with this virus, are considered foci, then for ticks infected with Borrelia, this is ubiquitous. Thus, the sucking of Borrelia mites is recorded both in Losinoostrovsky Park of Moscow and in other regions of Russia everywhere with the onset of warm weather.
As a rule, the incubation period after tick sucking is from two weeks to a month. But more often it is two weeks. At the site of tick suction, redness is noted, the spot gradually increases in size. Over time, in the center of the spot that has arisen after the tick has sucked, a characteristic cyanosis, the so-called ring-shaped erythema, appears. Thus, the first stage of the disease is developing – erythematous.
Another symptom of the initial stage of the disease is increased body temperature. If at this stage the patient visits the doctor promptly, borreliosis is quite successfully amenable to complete recovery. It is easy to identify erythema at the initial admission and examination of the patient.
If the patient does not pay attention to the first important “alarm bells,” then, after two weeks, it may seem that the disease has receded – but this may be just a deceptive lull before the next stage of the disease – arthralgia, which often occurs in a month or more. At this time, the pathogen is disseminated from the skin to the organs, which can be considered as chronic borreliosis, when the joints are primarily affected by the disease, namely polyarthritis, arthritis, the body’s autoimmune response to the pathogen. In addition, the nervous and cardiovascular systems are affected, visual disturbances are noted. In this case, patients are treated for life. If help is not provided to the sick person in time and to start the disease, the situation may result in disability or even death of the sick person.