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March 16, suddenly there was no singer Yulia Nachalova. She was only 38 years old. In talking about the causes of one of the most frequent versions of diabetes was diabetes and its possible serious consequences. The editors with the endocrinologist Dilyara Rezina, decided to recall the basic facts about this complex disease that everyone should know.Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases, common to which is an increase in blood glucose levels. Usually there are two main types: diabetes mellitus type 1 (previously called insulin-dependent) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (conventionally called insulin-dependent).
According to the mechanism of development and the method of therapy, these two types are very different.

The first type of diabetes does not produce insulin – a pancreatic hormone that promotes glucose uptake. With a lack of insulin, glucose cannot get into the tissues, and its level rises in the blood. The only treatment is insulin. If this is not done, complications develop very quickly, or hyperglycemic coma may occur.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which there is a lot of insulin in the blood, but it cannot work properly due to the development of insulin resistance – immunity to it. And in this case, treatment is more often aimed at improving the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, or at reducing blood glucose levels in other ways (for example, excretion of its excess by the kidneys).

In the second type of diabetes, insulin is also used in the treatment (therefore, it is gone from the old name – insulin-independent diabetes). However, more often, insulin is added at later stages, or in situations where tableted drugs are prohibited (during operations, during pregnancy). In diabetes mellitus type 2, the same complications develop as in the first type, however, acute complications (such as coma) are more rare.

1. Is it true that if you are constantly tormented by thirst and dries in your mouth, is this the first symptom of diabetes? How to distinguish diabetic thirst. And why does this thirst arise at all?
Dry mouth, thirst, frequent urination are usually the first symptoms to suspect diabetes mellitus. However, in older people these signs may not be, due to the reduced sensitivity of the center of thirst. It is also worth paying attention to general weakness, fatigue, weight loss, itching of the skin (also in the genital area, usually feel free to talk about it), and especially if even the most minor wounds do not heal for a long time.

Thirst for diabetes is secondary. Normally, glucose should not be excreted in the urine, the kidneys retain it and “preserve” it in the body. But with diabetes, its concentration in the blood is so great that the excretion of glucose with the kidneys increases. And glucose, being a large molecule, in turn “pulls” water along with it. It turns out that a person can lose up to 4-5 liters of water per day, which, of course, leads to severe thirst.

2. Is it true that if there is a lot of sweets, type 2 diabetes can develop?
There is a myth that diabetes arises from the fact that “devoured sweet”. However, this is absolutely not true. Type 1 diabetes is a disease that manifests itself with very pronounced damage to cells that produce insulin. Damage occurs more often due to autoimmune damage or genetic defects, and the amount of candy eaten is completely irrelevant. Type 2 diabetes mellitus – always has a hereditary predisposition. But even if you had no cases of diabetes in your family, there is a possibility that they were simply not diagnosed.

With long-term consumption of sweets, weight gain, low physical activity and hereditary predisposition – all of these factors, together – insulin resistance develops, which, as a result, leads to type 2 diabetes.

3. And if a person has diabetes, cannot he even have sugar? Is it possible to replace sugar with fructose and dried fruit? It is believed that fructose is even more dangerous.
In type 2 diabetes, refined carbohydrates should be removed from the diet as much as possible: this includes sugar, sweets, jams, preserves, honey, as well as semi-finished products, confectionery and flour products. I also highly recommend avoiding the consumption of fructose, which, disguised as a “healthy product,” is sold even in the supermarket departments with “proper nutrition”. In fact, it is not.

Dried fruits are also not recommended. When we eat fruit, despite the natural fructose, we get healthy fiber, vitamins and trace elements. And if you take the same fruit, but in dried form – almost all sugar remains.

With type 1 diabetes, we can continue to eat our favorite foods, and even eat sweets, it is only important to know how much insulin to apply to a particular food.

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