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Hygroma – why do bumps appear on the arms or legs and how to treat them

Surely you are familiar with the phenomenon of a bump on the bone of the wrist. She appears unexpectedly, does not hurt, but frightens with uncertainty. People apply plantain to such buds, rub it with tinctures – all this is useless. In addition to the wrist, a lump may appear under the knee or in other parts of the body. Such cones are called hygroms. Why they appear, whether they are dangerous and how to treat them – in the material of the surgeon Mikhail Fedotov.What is hygroma?
The movements of our arms, legs and all other parts of the body occur in the joints – the joints of the bones. To reduce friction in the joint, nature came up with this: the ends of the bones in the joint are covered with smooth cartilage, and between the cartilage is articular or synovial fluid. Smooth cartilage friction in a fluid medium promotes movement. Along the edge of the cartilage, a sheath is attached to the bones – a joint capsule – which prevents synovial fluid from flowing out. A synovial fluid is water in which a small amount of salts, proteins and carbohydrates are dissolved. It is formed, updated and absorbed by the joint capsule, or otherwise – the synovial membrane.

Another common place of friction in the body – long tendons, which muscles pull the bones in motion. These tendons are also enclosed in the synovial membrane, the so-called “tendon sheaths,” and the synovial fluid is also in the membrane.

If the joint pressure is constantly elevated, and the capsule in some place is weak and thinned, then in this place it can stretch out in the form of a pouch connected to the rest of the capsule with a thin neck. In this bag, the normal circulation of the synovial fluid is disturbed, water is strongly absorbed from it, and as a result a bag is made of the synovial membrane filled with jelly. This is a hygroma.

Thus, a hygroma is called a benign tumor bounded by a capsule that is filled with a clear liquid. More rarely, hygromas “detach” from the tendons of the vagina, extremely rarely they are even inside the skull.

Are the hygroms dangerous?
Most often, hygromas are safe: they do not degenerate into cancer, they do not suppurate, do not hurt. The exception is made by rare cases if the big hygroma presses on the nerves or vessels adjacent to it, or if the hygroma is inside the skull. Most often, hygroma is only a cosmetic defect, sometimes very noticeable, but it can also interfere with putting on a shoe or bracelet. It must be remembered that hygroma is always secondary, that the reason for its appearance is the ill health of the joint from which it grew. And then an experienced surgeon and / or orthopedic traumatologist will help solve the problem.

Why do they appear?
In order for a hygroma to appear, a combination of two factors is enough: constantly increased pressure in the joint and local weakness of its capsule. The weakness of the joint capsule may be caused by trauma or previous inflammation, and may be a sign of congenital weakness of the connective tissue. Moreover, the weakness of the connective tissue is easy to identify: it can also manifest itself with myopia, varicose disease, hemorrhoids, flat-footedness – this condition is called connective tissue dysplasia, it is not a disease, but a feature of the body.

Constant increased pressure is characteristic of the leg joints that carry the main body load: the ankle and knee joints (Baker’s cyst – posterior hygroma of the knee joint – one of the favorite hygrome locations), as well as for the wrist and hand joints – the result of writing, working on the keyboard , playing the piano, carrying bags and other long loads on the hand.

Do I need to delete them?
Intracranial hygromas, as well as hygromas that cause squeezing of surrounding structures, must be removed. Fortunately, this happens very rarely. Most often, hygromas are removed at the request of their owner, who, in turn, must first consult with a specialist – if they interfere, for example, with wearing watches or cause cosmetic discomfort.

What doctor should I contact to remove the hygroma?
Hygroma – formed bag of synovial membrane. Unfortunately, the stretched synovial membrane does not shrink back. There is a method of crushing the hygroma. He is described in Mario Puzo’s The Godfather, where the doctor hits a hygrometer on the patient’s arm with a thick book, and it disappears. This happens as follows: when struck, the jelly that fills the hygroma enters the joint and dissolves in its synovial fluid, while the hygroma empties and “falls off.” Unfortunately, this method gives a temporary effect – the membrane of the hygroma again develops synovial fluid, water is again absorbed from the liquid, a jelly is formed, and the hygroma appears again. Therefore, unfortunately, there are no alternatives to the removal of hygromy. Remove hygroma surgeons or orthopedic traumatologists.

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