Male infertility – causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Doctors are sounding the alarm: in 50% of cases infertility couples associated with health problems of men. But at the same time, most men are still convinced that conception issues depend only on the capabilities of the woman, and often refuse to approach the medical facilities for a cannon shot. What kind of health problems men can prevent conception – in the material of the urologist-andrologist Sergey Zhiganov.A modern man, as a rule, is always in an intense rhythm of life – a successful career, recognition of colleagues, respect for friends, a strong family, reliable rear, material well-being – to meet everywhere, to meet everyone, to discuss everything. And few people think what the price of such visible well-being really is. The rapid pulse of life, the frantic rhythm that she sets sometimes does not leave the necessary time to stop and think about the most valuable thing – her health, including reproductive health.
Meanwhile, the medical statistics is harsh: in 50% of cases, infertility of a couple is associated with a violation of spermatogenesis (the development of male germ cells). At the same time, few of the future fathers are aware that modern and not always correct lifestyles: physical inactivity, polluted air and water are not of the best quality, bad habits, unbalanced nutrition, excessive junk food, sports injuries and other factors. able to disrupt the urogenital system, change the structure and integrity of germ cells, damage their DNA and RNA, which makes it difficult to fertilize an egg. And if women, faced with the problem of infertility, diseases of the genitourinary sphere, immediately rush to the doctor, then it is difficult for a man to realize and accept his “inconsistency”.
How lifestyle affects the quality of sperm
Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of full-fledged male germ cells (spermatozoa), which begins during puberty in adolescence and continues throughout the life of a man. Spermatogenesis takes place in several stages, in total, the process lasts up to 72-76 days, which corresponds to three calendar months.
To date, the most common “enemies” of spermatogenesis are:
stress – the appearance of anxiety, depression, triggered by overwork, cause a change in homeostasis, hormonal levels, which affects the quality of sperm;
bad habits – smoking reduces the amount of sperm in the ejaculant, nicotine inhibits antioxidant protection, provokes zinc deficiency; alcohol causes a metabolic disorder; the use of caffeine-based energotonics leads to a mutation of chromosomes in the genome of germ cells;
Lifestyle – hypodynamia provokes stagnation in the pelvic organs, and harmful electromagnetic radiation (computer monitors, smartphones, which many people prefer to wear in their trousers pockets) also adversely affect the maturation process of sperm;
unbalanced diet – the habit of buying fast food deprives the male body of essential vitamins and minerals, contributing to the recruitment of extra pounds; and the higher the body mass index of a man, the lower the volume of his testes and the worse the quality of sperm;
age-related changes – with each passing year the effects of oxidative (oxidative) stress increase, and concomitant diseases are gradually added; This leads to abnormalities in the formation of cells, a decrease in the viability of sperm.
About the causes of infertility in men
Most often, various diseases can lead to male infertility. The most common infectious diseases with a large percentage of complications that lead to male infertility are mumps and brucellosis. It is necessary to remember about the national preventive vaccination calendar and to vaccinate children at a preschool age in a timely manner so that the future man is reliably protected from these diseases from childhood.
Also common causes of male infertility are abnormalities in the reproductive system (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, varicocele, hypogonadism). For their detection and timely treatment, it is necessary to regularly visit a pediatrician and a pediatric urologist-andrologist.
In adolescence, you should especially pay attention to the development of a competent and responsible attitude to their health in the child. Adolescents need to be aware of the fact that there are sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc.) that can cause infertility in the future. Reliable protection against these threats can only be protected sexual intercourse, and above all sexual culture and a responsible attitude to health.
Among the causes of infertility in men, noninfectious inflammatory processes (inflammation of the prostate and ureters), diabetes mellitus, endocrine disorders, intoxication, injuries of the reproductive organs, testicular neoplasms (benign and malignant) and hereditary susceptibility should be highlighted.