Surgical treatment of obesity – features, efficacy and contraindications
Almost a third of the world’s population is obese – this problem does not bypass either the rich or the poor. And an additional problem for obese people is the attitude of society – condemnation. Advertising services of plastic surgeons and popular shows about losing weight often form an unnecessarily easy attitude to the problem. Alexander Kochatkov specifically spoke about what operations are really used to treat obesity as a confirmed diagnosis.Statistics
Obesity is an extremely important and growing public health problem in both economically developed and developing regions of the world. In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults worldwide were overweight and more than 200 million men and almost 300 million women were obese. This number has doubled since the 1980s. According to current estimates, 33% of the world’s population of 7.08 billion people – a staggering 2.36 billion – are overweight or obese. Every second 2.5 people are added to the world population, and one of them will be obese or overweight. According to statistics, 35.7% of adults in the United States are obese. In Russia, as of the end of 2016, 23.5 million obese people were registered.
What is dangerous obesity
Obesity is associated with a markedly reduced life expectancy, which makes it the main cause of preventable death. Obesity has been shown to be associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, increased glucose tolerance or diabetes, sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some types of cancer, including the esophagus, pancreas, kidney cells, mammary gland, endometrium, neck and prostate cancer. Even more disturbing is that at least 2.8 million people in the world die each year directly due to overweight or obesity.
Causes of Mass Obesity
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a condition for excessive accumulation of body fat to the extent that it adversely affects health and well-being.
Our bodies are designed to work best in conditions where food was unstable, and a high level of physical activity was required to provide food and shelter, as well as transportation. Previously, this was enough to allow most people to maintain a healthy weight without conscious effort. But today everything is different. Providing food and shelter and movement in the environment does not require the high levels of physical activity needed in the past. Now you can be productive, leading a sedentary lifestyle.
Advances in technology in the workplace and reduced manual labor have led to a reduction in energy costs. Life itself in the city with its infrastructure – the availability of public and personal transport, the density and location of grocery stores and restaurants – contribute to an unhealthy lifestyle. Significant changes have occurred in the food environment with the increased availability of inexpensive food. The prices of high-calorie foods and drinks have decreased significantly in contrast to the rise in prices for fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products, which contributes to an increase in the consumption of unhealthy foods with an increase in portion sizes.
In such conditions, weight gain can only be prevented by consciously trying to eat less or be physically active.
Rich and poor: who are more at risk of obesity
Obesity rates are rising among people with any level of income and level of education, but absolute figures are lower for people with higher incomes and level of education. The most inexpensive foods are those that are high in fat and sugar. Biological preference for these foods, combined with easy accessibility, contributes to overeating. In addition, low-income people may engage in less physical activity than other segments of the population. One of the reasons for this discrepancy may be that security problems in low-income areas may prevent adults and children from exercising outdoors. Add to this the fatigue from work and a multitude of everyday problems that leave no effort to play sports. People who have more financial resources are easier to cope with these circumstances and, therefore, are more physically active and less obese than those who have less resources.
Surgical Obesity Treatment
In the most severe cases, when other methods no longer help in the treatment of obesity, resorted to surgical operations.